The 1954 Mutual Security Assistance Pact initially included a military assistance program that included Japan`s acquisition of funds, equipment and services for the country`s essential defence. Although Japan no longer received assistance from the United States in the 1960s, the agreement continued to serve as the basis for purchase and licensing agreements guaranteeing the interoperability of the two nations` weapons and the disclosure to Japan of secret data, including international intelligence reports and secret technical information. The concentration of troops in the small Japanese prefecture of Okinawa is a central theme of the ongoing debate on the U.S. military presence. U.S. military bases cover about one-fifth of Okinawa and account for about 75% of U.S. forces in Japan (Packard, 2010, Sumida, 2009). This has given many Okinavanis the feeling that the security agreement could be beneficial for the United States and Japan as a whole, but it is painful for the inhabitants of the small subtropical island. [Notice] However, Congress continues to support a rapid reduction in Japanese agricultural tariffs under the original agreement, as it is increasingly concerned that Japan`s other recently adopted trade agreements will penalize U.S. exports. U.S.
agriculture, including the pork, beef and wheat industries, welcomed the new agreement that brought U.S. producers back to a level playing field with foreign competitors.131 After the U.S. withdrawal from the TPP, Japan led the efforts of the remaining 11 TPP countries to finalize the global and progressive TPP (CPT or TPP-11) , which came into force in December for the first six signatories. including Japan. The free trade agreement with the EU also came into force in February 2019, which ultimately eliminates almost all tariffs between the parties, including the abolition of the 10% tariff from the European UNION and the abolition or reduction of most Japanese agricultural duties.132 At the same time, some US industries, such as the dairy and rice industries , expressed concern about the extent of new market access or the lack of consideration of other key issues. , such as. B Geographical Indications (GIs) or Plant Health and Health Protection Standards (SPS), which are among the areas that are generally covered by U.S. global trade agreements. The Trump administration has hinted that the initial agreements would not require formal congressional approval and informed Congress on September 16, 2019, of its intention to reach an agreement on customs barriers under some delegated presidential authorities and a separate executive agreement on digital trade.8 This approach has sparked some discussion among U.S. members and other stakeholders about the role and role of Congress in this matter.
issues that could be discussed with Japan in the future. administration intends to follow suit.